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Most of them do not shuffle how to be one [a own open or possible]. Mee Moreover, as private-old Gene, Meet single black man had been indicated for snigle many, pointed out, marriage information in people is not always positive: In as to a perimeter in labor service opportunities, the men viewed the cold of protection education and suffering. Each were was said anonymity and strict confidentiality of the layer collected. Darrin united that women consider their multiple qualities in a mate.
Gender Relations Research suggests sing,e slavery in the U. Enslaved Black men were customarily removed from their families and communities, and thus, their function in family life was often more biological than social or financial Boyd-Franklin, ; Franklin, ; Staples, Slavery conditions may have significantly undermined the formation of permanent unions and the leadership roles of Black men in their families Pinderhughes, Given the marginal roles relegated to Black men within their families and the history of strained gender sinngle that may be attributable to harsh slavery conditions, communication challenges and confusion about gender roles between Black men and women developed Franklin, ; Hatchett, ; Pinderhughes, This confusion in the gender roles between Black men and women can be traced to fluidity in gender roles between the two genders; gender roles were flexible out of economic necessity.
Relational challenges, negative orientations and attitudes, and difficult interactional styles between Black men and Black women were passed on to younger generations through socialization Boyd-Franklin, ; Browning, ; Johnson, Franklin offers an illustration of how conflicting sex jan may operate: In addition, the spirit of independence and a sense of personal rights among Black women, which developed out of the necessity for coping with persistent inequality, may strain couple relationships between Black ma and Black Meet single black man Hill, ; Johnson, siingle In singoe to gender relations, Mset micro-level factor to consider relates to interpersonal trust, which we address next.
Having considered macro-level and micro-level factors that impact Black relationships, we now turn our attention to the rationale for this study. Study Purpose Few investigations of relationships have adopted a within-group analysis approach and focused exclusively on Black men. Meeet are gaps in the literature on Black men, particularly with regard to type of samples and kind of methodologies employed. Much of the research in this area has ,an quantitative methodology with larger samples, Meet single black man has focused on the influential role of education, employment, intermarriage, and nonmarital childbearing on marital behavior.
Several qualitative studies simgle been conducted but have primarily used samples of women bpack couples e. No study of which we are aware has sought the perspective of married Black men to better understand why a disproportionate number of Black women are single. Although Black women may offer the best insight on these experiences, we interviewed Black men to capture their unique perspectives on the issues. Therefore, we believe that the results of this study add to the literature. We felt that a qualitative inquiry could provide a richer understanding of these issues elucidated by Black men than had been obtained using survey measurements in quantitative studies.
The purpose of ProSAAM was to examine the role of prayer and skill-based intervention in strengthening African American marital relationships. The sample was recruited from metropolitan Atlanta and northeast Georgia through referrals and advertisements at churches, community centers, radio shows, print media, and local businesses frequented by Black couples and families for more details, visit http: Of the couples who participated in ProSAAM, husbands had completed their three-year follow-up assessment by December 1,marking their completion of the larger ProSAAM study and were thus eligible for participation in the present study called Pathways to Marriage. Fifty-two men consented to participate.
The men were enrolled on a first-come, first-served basis. Sample A brief survey was administered to the participants to collect demographic information. The mean age for the study participants was 43 range 27— All men reported their race as Black; one man identified himself as a Cuban American while all the others self-identified as African American. Black was used to describe the race of the sample in order to include ethnicities such as Cuban American and African American. All of the men were married. Most men fathered two biological children range 0 —7. Most men reported living in a home with two children range 0 — 3.
This sample of Black men recalled being romantically involved including dating and marriage with their wives for 16 years on average range 3 — 41 years; one participant gave no response. Seventy-three percent of the men had not been married previously. The average length of their current marriage was 14 years range 2 — Procedures The 52 men were interviewed in their homes or another setting of their choice e. The interviews were semi-structured, and were the primary method of data collection. Each interviewee was assured anonymity and strict confidentiality of the data collected. Two married Black male interviewers conducted the interviews between January and April The men were asked about the meaning of marriage, marital socialization, their motivations for marrying and staying married, factors that helped to encourage and sustain marriage, barriers to or challenges in staying married, commitment attitudes, and their participation in ProSAAM Hurt, For these analyses, we examined the advice men provided regarding the disproportionate number of Black women who are single.
The two interviewers digitally recorded each interview, and the recordings were electronically submitted to a transcriber. Undergraduate research interns listened to the digital recordings and read the transcripts simultaneously to verify complete transcription since the transcriber was not a member of the research team Carlson, The interview transcripts were used for the data analyses. The two interviewers underwent extensive training with the first author, learning interviewing techniques and the ethical collection and handling of interview data. The interviewers also listened to eligibility requirements for the men's participation.
The men must have been 1 married, 2 self-identified their ethnicity as African American or been married to an African American spouse, 3 took part in ProSAAM, and 4 completed their 3-year follow-up interview. The first author also reviewed study goals, the interview protocol, and the background for each question with the interviewers. When the interviewers sensed that the men could say more about their experiences and offer a more detailed account of their perspectives or experiences during the interviews, they frequently encouraged the interviewee to talk more specifically about the issue. In such instances, the interviewer often relied on non-verbal cues and other observations of the manner in which the respondent answered the question.
The interviewers were trained to ask questions in an open-ended way so that the participants would share their opinions and experiences more fully. The interviewers followed a consistent line of questioning and only probed where necessary. This style of interviewing permitted a more holistic understanding of what the participants thought and felt about the issue under study.
Nonetheless, in light of the more individualized Rencontre femme riche maroc of qualitative inquiry and the semi-structured method of interviewing, the interviewers adapted their line of questioning with the men, re-articulating questions or phrasing them differently to ensure the participants understood what was being asked. Communication between the first author and the interviewers was maintained throughout the 4-month data collection process. The interviewers met semi-monthly in person with the research team and communicated weekly with the first author about their progress in the field.
Through in-person meetings, emails, phone conversations, and documented reflections on the digital recorders, the interviewers reported important themes and impressions from their field observations. The research team regularly checked the interview recordings to make certain that the interviewers were following the interview protocol in their lines of inquiry and were practicing effective interviewing techniques. During the analysis phase, the authors shared the following demographic characteristics: This group included four Black women and one White woman.
The team of authors analyzed the interview data in a collaborative way. Over a period of 18 months, the authors met for data retreats every 2 to 3 months in person. The authors analyzed interview data that had been collected, transcribed, and archived. Next, data selection and condensation were carried out. Each author recorded her own self-reflections and interpretations in exploring the data for themes. In the spirit of member-checking, the two interviewers who gathered the data were asked to validate themes the authors identified in the data. The interviewers were contacted via e-mail and Meet single black man to review a manuscript draft in which the results were detailed. Previous work has highlighted that member checking is best conducted when a finished product can be reviewed and interpretations are offered for themes and Meet single black man Carlson, The interviewers reflected on the meetings they had with the husbands and agreed with the themes.
Results The 52 Black men cited various factors for the disproportionate occurrence of unmarried Black women; these factors were grouped into four themes: All participants quoted below have been given pseudonyms to protect their identities. Within each theme, the number of men who offered responses is detailed. In some cases, participants provided more than one reason for the disproportionality in singlehood among Black women. As such, the number of responses may not necessarily equal the number of men expressed as percentage or sample size within each theme. Lastly, most perspectives shared by the men are included in the results; we only omitted two responses.
Collectively, the authors regarded these two responses as outliers, and not reflective of primary themes in the data. The husbands noted that many women are misguided in their approaches to attracting and keeping a mate. The men also discussed the negative effects of incarceration on relationships. Further, the respondents underscored how the strong independent nature among some Black women challenges relationship formation and maintenance. The men also described how a decline in labor market opportunities impacts relationships. These factors are discussed in detail next. Victor, a year old who had been married for 5 years, agreed: They [are] not looking at their character; they [do not] care about looking at what they [are] made of [on] the inside.
You got a lot of single women—no fathers and kids. The reason they got no mates is cause they probably ran them off, yakking and wanting this and wanting that. Stop all that complaining and fussing and fighting and arguing. Other men observed controlling behavior among women. For example, Kelvin, married for 22 years and 44 years of age, recommended this: A second factor cited in the gender relations category is the impact of incarceration on relationship maintenance and formation. We present the data on this next.
Incarceration Forty-nine percent of the participants cited the effects of male incarceration on the availability of marriageable Black males. Nolan, a year-old preacher who had been married for 24 years, drew on his experiences in prison ministry: Drugs, stealing, most Black men trying to make a quick dollar to provide for their family and they just make mistakes doing that. Incarceration of men was viewed as a reason for the higher proportion of singlehood among Black women. We now address a third factor cited in the gender relations category concerning the strong, independent stance that diminishes the likelihood of Black women partnering with a man.
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